The grape belongs to genus Vitis which comprises about sixty species. However, the principal species from which the cultivated grape has been derived is Vitis vinifera. There are three broad division of grapes: Dessert grapes, wine grapes and Raisin grapes. Grapes are rapidly becoming a popular home grown fruit. They are consumed fresh, as juices and wine, …
Introduction and Importance:
The grape belongs to genus Vitis which comprises about sixty species. However, the principal species from which the cultivated grape has been derived is Vitis vinifera. There are three broad division of grapes: Dessert grapes, wine grapes and Raisin grapes. Grapes are rapidly becoming a popular home grown fruit. They are consumed fresh, as juices and wine, as raisins, jam and jelly Sand as frozen products. In Pakistan only european grapes are cultivated for eating. Over 70% of grapes are grown in Balochistan, while there are some acreage in NWFP.
Area And Production Of Grapes In Pakistan:
|Year||Total Area (Hectares)||Production(Tones)|
Seedless: Sunda Khani, Sra Kishmish, Askari, Flame seedles and King’s Ruby.
Seeded: Haita, Black Prince, Sahihi, Hussaini, and Tando
Soil And climate:
A deep fertile well drained loamy soil with a moderate amount of organic matter is best. A pH range from 5.5 to 7.0 is satisfactory. On soil low in fertility grapes grow slowly and produce low yield. Heavy clayey soil should be avoided. Grapes are grown in mild sub-tropical conditions. They require a winter which is cold enough to fulfill their chilling requirements. European grapes grow and bear well under a long, warm to hot, dry summer. In Punjab onset of monsoon weather during the ripening period cause the failure of grapes.
Generally propagated by cuttings. Ripe wood cutting. 12-18 inches long with 5-8 nodes taken from last year’s canes of meium thickness are best to ensure their proper rooting. To ensure their proper rooting they may be tied in small bundles and heeled inverted in earth with their bases up lightly covered with soil for a week.
Immediately after plantation the grape vines require irrigation. After every 10 days in the first summer. Afterwards they should be irrigated after an interval of 20-25 days in summer and once a month during winter.
Grapes are slow to show the effects of fertilizer deficiences but lack of fertilizer over a period of years results in a gradual decline in growth and yield. Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium fertilizer should be applied during winter or early spring to maintain the plants.
Training and pruning depend upon the system you select. Initially your plants should prune to develop a single strong shoot with several well placed laterals. Most common pruning systems in grapes are Head, Corden and Cane systems. Head system does not need any support, but good results can be aieved in those varieties which bear on the lowest second or third bud. Cordon system requires a two-wire trellis. Select the laterals and train them along the wires. These form the permanent arms of the cordon. Each spring, prune the canes that grow from the cordon back to one or two buds each and thin the upright branches to four or five on each permanent arm. Cane system is similar to cordon system with little changes.
Insects Pest And Diseases:
The grape leaf hopper: It is the common insect pest feed on the vines from the time leaves apear in the spring until they drop in the fall. They remove the green clorophyll, and the whole leaf may become pale, die and turn brown.
Powdery mildew is a fungul disease prevalent on grapes. Any portion of plant such as leaves, blossom, fruit and young shoots may be affected. White patches appearance may be noted on leaves young shoots; blossom fail to set fruit. Young berries attacked by this fungus may drop, or become hardened, discoloured and cracked. To contol powdery mildew apply fungicides before symptoms appear.
Root knot caused by a gall-forming nematode may become a problem in sandy and sandy loam soil, resulting in adecline in vine vigor and reduction in yields To control it use resistant rootstocks and fumigate the soil.
Key Reference : parc.gov.pk